Attacks on energy sectors are an important part of the strategy of Islamist militant and terrorist organisations such as Al Qaeda and its offshoots or the Taliban. In connection with this, this article focuses on the attitude of the global Islamist terrorist group the Islamic State (IS) with regard to terrorism, specifically targeting oil and gas sectors as a political instrument of its strategy in the Middle East and North Africa. The main aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the forms, goals and motives of the IS terrorist attacks on the oil and gas industry and the accompanying criminal activities conducted by the IS in Iraq, some examples of these attacks, and their possible impact on energy security. At the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attacks on energy sectors. On the methodological level, the paper is based on the case study method.