Abstract: To understand the current character of the Middle East, a clear picture of the context in which the prevailing order was formed is necessary and the relationships between parties, the dominant behaviour patterns of the entities and institutions that created and shaped the regional order and interference from external forces must be taken into account. However, the periods of stability and instability and unfolding security issues are best explained the by power, ambition, behaviour and interaction of key regional powers identified in this work as: Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. The relationships and conflicts between these powers, as well as examples of cooperation and integration, will be at the centre of this examination of the changes in the regional order of the Middle East over the past seven decades.

Keywords: Middle East, regional powers, regional order, integration, conflict, region, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey