By Henri J. Barkey

Syria's Dark Shadow Over US-Turkey Relations

Like all conflicts, the Syrian civil war has given rise to its share of unintended consequences. Among them are the emergence of the Syrian Kurds as a force to contend with and the resulting discord between Turkey and the US. Bashar al-Assad’s resilience has frustrated Turkey while the rise of ISIL as a global jihadi threat, has caused the US to re-evaluate its priorities. Turkey remains focused on Assad and preventing the consolidation of the Syrian Kurds whereas the US has allied itself with…


By Birol Akgün

Turkey's Loaded Discussion On System Change: Presidentialism Vs. Parliamentarism

Turkey is currently embroiled in a heated domestic debate about transitioning from a parliamentary system to a presidential system.There are deep divisions among both Turkey’s political class and different segments of society about the proposed political system and constitutional change. In this article, the author lays out the reasons behind the AK Party’s push for establishing an executive presidency, the opposition parties’ positions vis-a-vis this change, and the different dimensions of the…

Issue 10:2

By Alexey Khlebnikov

Why did the 2011 Egyptian Revolution Fail?

Abstract: This article examines why the Egyptian revolt of January 2011 was not a revolution. It shows that the revolt did not change the fundamental political structure of the country, which eventually ended up under military rule. Several theories of revolution will be presented and reasons for the revolution’s failure will be examined in historical, regional and domestic contexts. This work argues that several essential conditions for successful revolution and democracy promotion were not in…

Issue 10:2

By Martina Ponížilová

The Impact of Competition between the Regional Powers on the Middle East Regional Order, 1945–2010

Abstract: To understand the current character of the Middle East region, one has to have a clear picture of the context in which the prevailing order was formed. The relationships between parties have to be taken into account, as well as the dominant behaviour patterns of the entities and institutions that created and shaped the regional order, and interference from external forces. However, periods of stability and instability and on-going security issues that the region has not resolved are…

Issue 10:2

By Leonid E. Grinin and Andrey V. Korotayev

Revolution and Democracy: Socio-Political Systems in the Context of Modernisation

Abstract: The stability of socio-political systems and the risks of their destabilisation in the process of political transformation belong to the most important issues of social development. In this respect, the transition to democracy may pose serious threats to the stability of the respective socio-political systems. This article studies democratisation within a globalised context. It highlights the economic and social costs of a rapid transition to democracy for countries unprepared for…

Issue 10:2

By Samer Bakkour

Dynamics of the Middle East Peace Process in the Era of US Hegemony, 1950-2000

Abstract: This article begins with the observation that the US has, over the course of the 20th century, exerted an unrivalled influence upon international affairs. In exerting this influence, which is manifested within various dimensions (military, economic and technological), successive American administrations were able to pursue and consolidate US interests at the international level of governance. In this respect, it is telling that both advocates and critics of American power agree upon…

Issue 10:2

By Prem Mahadevan

Urban Counterterrorist Sieges: The 2008 Mumbai Attack and Police (In)Capacity

Abstract: The Mumbai terrorist attack of 2008 exposed key vulnerabilities in India’s defences against urban terrorism. Not only did it reflect an unprecedented degree of sophistication on the part of jihadist planners, but the attack also demonstrated that the Indian policing system was woefully inadequate for the task of combating suicidal assaults. This work provides an analysis of the tactical and operational aspects of the Indian security response, with a view towards identifying lessons…

Issue 10:2

By Šárka Kolmašová

Inconsistencies between Libya and Syria? Pragmatic Revisionism and the Responsibility to Protect

Abstract: The on-going debate on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) concept revolves around its problematic and inconsistent implementation, particularly while comparing the military intervention to protect civilians in Libya (2011) and the inadequate response to the Syrian crisis. The article traces the development of the R2P discourse in the context of key cases, which fundamentally shaped the interpretation of legitimate conditions for humanitarian military intervention. In contrast to the…

2016 - Volume 10, Issue 2