Issue 2010 - Volume 4, Issue 1

Subdivision anti-terrorist police observed a black tactical exercises. Black and white photo.

Issue 4:1

Christian Kaunert

Towards Supranational Governance in EU Counter-Terrorism? – The Role of the Commission and the Council Secretariat

Since the events of 11 September 2001 (9/11), it has been argued by some scholars that security has become the dominant force in the European Union’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). As a result, there has been an active debate on the ‘securitization’ of the new threats, such as refugees and migrants (Bigo 1996, 1998a, 1998b, 1998c, 2001, 2002; Guild 1999, 2002, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, 2004, 2006; Guiraudon 2000, 2003; Huysmans 2000, 2004). In this context, ‘securitization’ refers to…

Directly above photograph of an application for a visa.

Issue 4:1

Sarah Leonard

The Use and Effectiveness of Migration Controls as a Counter-Terrorism Instrument in the European Union

Since the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the issue of the linkages between security concerns, in particular terrorism, and asylum and migration policies in the European Union (EU) has received an increasing amount of scholarly attention (see Guild, 2003a; Guild, 2003b; Baldaccini and Guild, 2007; Boswell, 2007; Bigo and Tsoukala, 2008; Chebel d’Appolonia and Reich, 2008a; Givens et al., 2009; Winterdyk and Sundberg, 2010). Most scholars have argued that security concerns have led to…


Issue 4:1

Oldrich Bures

Perceptions of the Terrorist Threat among EU Member States

The European Union’s (EU) efforts in the fight against terrorism have already been analysed in a number of scholarly articles and edited volumes. While differing substantially in their scope, depth and focus, most analyses have identified important gaps and shortcomings of the nascent EU Counterterrorism policy, which effectively came into being after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States (US). Some of the available literature offers important insights and…

Sanctions road sign

Issue 4:1

Francesco Giumelli

Bringing Effectiveness into the Debate: A Guideline to Evaluating the Success of EU Targeted Sanctions

The relevance of international sanctions has increased since the end of the Cold War as states and international organisations have resorted to this foreign policy tool more frequently than in the past. The European Union (EU) has contributed to this trend by using sanctions in more than twenty different occasions since the early 1990s and the new form of targeted sanctioning developed in the past fifteen years, which aims at individuals and non-state entities rather than at entire states, has…

Flag of EU

Issue 4:1

Radka Drulakova, Jan Martin Rolenc, Zuzana Travnickova, Stepanka Zemanova

Assessing the Effectiveness of EU Sanctions Policy

While the European Communities (ECs) has applied autonomous sanctions for many years, their character has significantly changed since the 1990s. Such changes may be the result of the transformation of the ECs into the European Union (EU), and to the creation of its second pillar; the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). On the other hand, the EU's ongoing attempts at gaining increased importance on the international level - promoting itself as a key player in international politics - may…

View of Tbilisi Old town Sololaki

Issue 4:1

Stephen Herzog

Western Values and Strategic Interests? Evaluating Potential Georgian Membership in NATO

Since the Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008, the Republic of Georgia’s potential membership in NATO has been a hotly contested issue. Unfortunately, the arguments on both sides of the debate often rely on catchphrases such as “vibrant democracy” and “corrupt authoritarianism” without referencing the Atlantic Alliance’s established enlargement criteria. I attempt to provide the proper structural context to the debate by examining the issues through the lens of the Washington Treaty, the…

USA and EU flags next to each other waving in the wind

Issue 4:1

Bryan Groves

Moving Together Toward an Uncertain Future: US-European Counterterrorism Vision, Responses & Cooperation Post-9/11

The lead-up to the Iraq War, and its conduct, highlighted significant differences in transatlantic perspectives, capabilities, and methods. While terrorism has generally been America’s central fixation since 9/11 (until the recent economic recession), Europe sees terrorism as only one of several important threats today, with proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), failed states, regional conflicts, and organised crime among the other top tier threats. The US possesses a comparative…

Beautiful great wall in sunset, China

Issue 4:1

Milos Balaban

Europe and the United States in the “Asian” 21st Century: The Political, Economic and Security Context

While, at the western end of Eurasia, most European states are taking part in a great experiment; broadening and deepening their political, economic and security integration within the EU, at the eastern end of Eurasia, an experiment of no less importance is underway. China, the world’s most populous great power (a relatively poor, centrally controlled country) is being transformed – in a historically short time – into a politically and economically powerful, mature and respected global actor.…

Landscape panoramic view of The Statue of Liberty

Issue 4:1

Richard Lappin

What We Talk About When We Talk About Democracy Assistance: The Problem of Definition in Post-Conflict Approaches

Since the early 1990s, one of the most striking characteristics to emerge in post-conflict peacebuilding has been the prime position assumed by democratisation; an approach we can term post-conflict democracy assistance. This focus has hinged on an unerring belief that democratic governance, provided by periodic and genuine elections, offers the most effective mechanism for managing and resolving societal tensions without recourse to violence (Annan 2001; Boutros-Ghali 1992, 1996). Indeed, the…

President Bush Giving a Speech

Issue 4:1

Jan Ludvik

Questioning the Dominance of Military Means: The Bush Administration’s Fight against Terrorism

This work is devoted to investigating the variety of approaches that the US presidential administration of George W. Bush deployed to counter terrorism following 9/11. This topic deserves special attention because Bush’s approach to fighting terrorism is often misconceived as primarily or even only, military in nature. This perception, well established within public and to some extent scholarly discourses, significantly influences international views of the United States’ foreign policy.…

Headquarters of the World Health Organization May 14, 2013 in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system.

Issue 4:1

Nikita Chiu

Evaluating Sub-State Participation in the History of International Health Co-operation

The Treaty of Westphalia is often referred to as the point of departure in the history of international relations. It was in 1648 that the modern state system was established and the concept of national sovereignty born. Today, these two concepts remain essential elements that govern interstate relations. Despite that the term international relations implies relations between nations instead of states, it has historically been taken for granted that IR is a discipline that focuses on the…

2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2